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Similarly retinal veins are made up of a single layer of endothelial cells having a thin basement membrane, media comprising of predominantly elastic fibers and muscle cells, and a thin adventitia.As we move to periphery veins loose muscle cells which get replaced with pericytes.Hence we attempt to structure our discussion in accordance with the latest Chapel Hill Nomenclature.Table 1: Classification of Eye vasculitis according to Chapel Hill nomenclature.Rarely patients show a benign course and most patients have a severe and prolonged disease with episodic exacerbations.Patients should be investigated for multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, lymes disease, syphilis, tuberculosis etc. Common posterior segment complications are cystoid macular edema, epiretinal membrane formation, vitreous condensation, neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment and cyclitic membranes [13,14].Also, deposition of immune complexes in the sclera, limbal and retinal vessels results in recruitment of inflammatory cells responsible for tissue necrosis and ischemia.Classification Since separate clinical and histological classifications led to confusion and duplication, American College of Rheumatology (Chapel Hill) developed a nomenclature to evaluate and describe systemic vasculitis in a standard fashion .
The arterial wall is composed of (from inside to outside) a single layer of endothelial cells with subendothelial elastica, a media of smooth muscle cells with a poorly demarcated external elastic lamina, and an adventitia consisting of collagen fibrils.
It was recently updated to include forms of vasculitis that were not included earlier (Table 1) .
However, none of the classifications mention ocular manifestations in detail.
These immediately give rise to temporal and nasal arcades, which supply all 4 quadrants of retina.
The corresponding retinal veins drain these quadrants, finally joining as the central retinal vein, which eventually drains into the cavernous sinus.
Capillary walls comprise of endothelial cells, basement membrane, and intramural pericytes .