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Later, it is true, the licentiate was granted in the Italian university also at the first examination ( privata ); but this merely implied permission to proceed to the second, more formal, examination ( publica ) in which the licentia docendi was given.At Paris, the licentiate meant a real authorization to teach, besides being a pre-requisite for admission to the final examination ( inceptio ) at which the doctorate was conferred.Amen." Then followed a disputation ( aulica ) in which the chancellor, the masters, and one of the bachelors took part.It was customary also to hold, on the evening before inception, an elaborate disputation known as vesperiœ (see, for details, "Chartularium", II, App., p. Among the various doctorates, that in theology ranked first. In the German universities, for instance, licentiates in law or medicine might become bachelors in theology after five years of theological study; they would then be obliged to pursue the course prescribed for the other candidates.In the early Church, teachers in the catechetical schools were known as doctores audientium (Cyprian, Ep. Hartel); and finally, in the course of time, some of the most illustrious theologians were designated as "Doctors of the Church" (q.v.).The use of Doctor as an academic title dates from the founding of the medieval universities.
Paris held tenaciously to its rights ; Oxford was more liberal, but would not permit a Parisian doctor to teach merely on the strength of his degree.
This prerogative developed gradually out of the licentia docendi which the degree itself implied, i.e.
the right to teach in the university which conferred the doctorate.
There was a corresponding difference in the length of the course for the degree.
Bologna required six years of study for the doctorate in canon law, and seven or eight for the doctorate in civil law ; the student might begin his course at the age of fourteen and become a doctor at twenty or twenty-one.
It was no uncommon thing for those who had received the degree in the other faculties to take additional courses for the S. Conversely, theologians were sometimes permitted to follow courses in civil law and medicine.